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时间:2017-03-21 10:11 来源: 作者: 点击:

Scientists have found the key to artificial life after creating yeast from manmade DNA. 在用人造DNA生产出酵母之后,科学家们打开了一扇通往人工生命的大门。 The synthetic yeast could be used to create painkillers biofuel bread better able to withstand high temperatures and cheaper beer for the brewing industry. 合成酵母可以用来生产止痛药、生物燃料、面包,更能为酿酒业提供廉价而耐高温的啤酒。 More importantly yeast shares a quarter of its genes with humans so may allow biologists to build whole sections of DNA to prevent devastating diseases like cystic fibrosis. 最重要的是,这些酵母有四分之一的基因与人类基因相同,生物学家以此可生成一整个DNA组,用于预防囊性纤维化一类的可怕疾病。 Artificial yeast could be used for bread-baking as it is more resistant to high temperatures. 人工酵母对高温的承受能力更强,可以很好地用于烘焙, It could also make beer brewing cheaper by using yeast which is more tolerant to alcohol. 它对酒精的耐受性也更高,能够使酿酒过程变得更加经济, It could also be used to manufacture painkillers antibiotics and biofuels which separate studies show could replace petrol and jet fuel. 还用于生产止痛药、抗生素,以及被广泛认为可以替代传统燃料的生物燃料。 Baker's yeast is similar to human cells but simpler and easier to study. 烘焙用的酵母与人类细胞相似,但其结构更简单,易于研究。 Synthetic DNA created in the same way could be used to replace faulty DNA which causes diseases like cystic fibrosis and Down's syndrome. 用同样方法制造的人工合成DNA可以用来代替缺陷DNA,缺陷DNA会导致例如囊胞性纤维症和唐氏综合症这样的疾病。

An international team of scientists successfully replaced almost a third of the genetic material in baker's yeast after creating five new synthetic chromosomes with DNA made from chemicals in the laboratory. 一个国际科学家团队用实验室化学合成的DNA制造了五个新的合成染色体,已成功替换了烘焙酵母差不多三分之一的基因材料。 The team including researchers from Imperial College in London yesterday announced they plan to create entirely manmade yeast by the end of the year. 这个包含有伦敦帝国理工学院研究者的团队在昨天宣布,他们计划到年底前制造出完全人造的酵母。 The breakthrough will reignite the debate over GM food as artificial yeast could in future be used to make bread more nutritious. 这个突破会重新激起转基因食品的争论,因为人造酵母在未来可以使面包更有营养。 It also raises fears over bioterrorism as the same DNA-swapping methods could be harnessed to create extra deadly viruses. 这同样带来了对生物恐怖主义的担忧,因为相同的DNA交换方法可以用来制造更有杀伤力的病毒。 However the researchers involved say it is a major milestone in the race to create the first fully artificial complex living organism. 但是,相关研究者说,第一次全合成一个复杂的活性微生物是一个巨大的里程碑。 They not only inserted new DNA into yeast but removed that which was unnecessary showing scientists can speed up evolution by taking the building blocks of life and rearranging them. 他们不仅将新DNA插入酵母,而且去除了一些不必要的DNA,结果显示科学家可以利用生命的构造模块(DNA),同时利用这些模块的重新排列来加速进化。

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